Lithography is a flat-surface printing process on limestone invented about 1798 in Europe. By the late 1820s commercial establishments in the United States had formed. The trade first relied on handpresses and then minimally steam-powered presses from about 1850 until the early 1870s when Robert Hoe & Co. became the dominant American manufacturer of lithographic steam presses. Hoe’s “printing machine,” patented after an invention of French mechanical engineer Hippolyte Marinoni (1823-1904), included a cylinder, automatic dampening and inking features, and an improved paper delivery system. The press printed about 1,000 impressions an hour, ten times the number produced by one operated by hand.