Until the early decades of the 19th century, American type foundries depended on their European counterparts for their tools and inventory of designs. The Ronaldson firm, established about 1796, was the earliest permanent type foundry in America, the first to issue a type specimen book (1812), and an early advocate of creating an American style of type. Over forty pages of designs, predominantly European-style fonts and borders produced through their patented, revolutionary, time-saving casting technique, fill this 1816 specimen book. By the late 19th century, the firm established by Binny & Ronaldson continued to lead the American type founding industry, now under the name Mackellar, Smiths & Jordan. The 208 pages of this 1878 specimen book show the dramatic transformation of American type over the intervening years.