Five decades after Matthias Koops’s work on straw and wood paper, the search for a practical and economical rag substitute was still underway. Publishers W. A. Leary & Co. proudly advertised as a “cheap book store” and used the least expensive materials in their publications that their customers would accept. Their frugality went even farther in their ephemeral printing. The sheet shown here is similar to the wrapping paper of the day, and may have been used as such, or possibly as a proof sheet. The text and format are the same as seen on the bindings of contemporary Leary almanacs, but the paper and the layout indicate that this was never intended for sale, even to their undiscriminating clients. Manufactured during a rag shortage, the paper is made of an alternative vegetable fiber, possibly straw or manila.